The historical events that we will commemorate in 2010 took place over a very extensive geographical area. For those individuals interested in retracing the military campaigns, here we describe just six of the routes involved: three for the Independence movement and three for the Mexican Revolution. The routes were planned based on the accessibility of the chosen destinations using the federal highway system. Both non-toll roads and toll roads administered by CAPUFE (the Federal Toll Roads and Bridges Agency) are included.
The Communications and Transportation Ministry will post signs along these routes. This will be done in stages so that in 2010 all of the routes are marked. The Tourism Ministry will provide information for tourists that will be available at strategic points along the highways. The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) will reinforce its offices along the routes where there are historic sites, museums and monuments in its charge. All of the historical and geographical information, along with the corresponding maps, will be available on the bicentennial web page.
In addition, special signs that say Mexico is My Museum will be installed at the most important points along the routes so that the public can learn more about the sites and their roles in the historical events of the Independence movement and the Revolution. A one-minute message about the location will be available by calling a 1-800 number from any telephone.
Some of the places along the routes have a different name now than they did during the Independence movement and the Revolution. We have used their current names in order to make it easy to locate them on a map.
Routes of the Independence Movement
1. The Freedom Route
This route—inaugurated by President Adolfo López Mateos in 1960 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the Independence movement—follows the progress of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla from the town of Dolores to Chihuahua. For the 200th anniversary, we propose to expand the route by including sites associated with Father Hidalgo’s main collaborators.
2. The Sentiments of the Nation Route
This route is based on the military campaigns led by José María Morelos y Pavón and his collaborators in the states of Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Morelos, Mexico, Puebla, Veracruz and Chiapas. The route reflects Morelos’ military strategy of dividing his army into several sections commanded by individuals such as Mariano Matamoros, the Galeana brothers, the Bravo family, Guadalupe Victoria, Vicente Guerrero, Manuel Mier y Terán and others, and following a model of total war in the center and the south of the country. Also included is the route followed by Xavier Mina. Although he plays his role after Morelos’ death, militarily he was subject to the authority created by Morelos. The heroic efforts of the Mezcala rebels at the Laguna de Chapala also deserve to be commemorated on these routes.
Marcos Castellanos y Encarnación Rosas (Chapala)
3. The Route of the Army of Three Guarantees Download map (PDF)
This is the route taken by Agustín de Iturbide from Iguala to Mexico City in 1821 to consolidate Mexico’s independence.
Routes of the Revolution
1. The Route of Democracy (Francisco I. Madero) Download map (PDF)
This route follows the triumphal path of Francisco I. Madero in 1911 from Ciudad Juárez to Mexico City.
2. The Zapatista Route
This route encompasses the theater of operations of the Liberation Army of the South in the states of Morelos, Puebla, Mexico and the Federal District.
3. The Route of the Constitutionalist Revolution
This route is based on the political and military actions taken by four individuals in the north of the country. Venustiano Carranza
Pablo González Download map (PDF)