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Home BIOGRAPHIES Revolution REVOLUTION / FRANCISCO I. MADERO

REVOLUTION / FRANCISCO I. MADERO

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FRANCISCO I. MADERO (1873-1913)



F
rancisco Ignacio Madero is president of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. He is born on Hacienda de El Rosario in Parras de la Fuente in the state of Coahuila to a wealthy agricultural family. He studies business administration, first in Baltimore in the United States, then at the Lycée de Versailles in France. He travels throughout Europe and then enters San Francisco University in California.
 
FRANCISCO I. MADERO (1873-1913)


           At the age of 20, Madero moves to San Pedro de las Colonias to manage his father’s properties in the La Laguna region. He devotes himself to working the land and implementing new farming systems. In 1900, he publishes a booklet proposing the construction of a dam in case of a drought, for which he receives a congratulatory letter from President Porfirio Díaz. As Madero develops more technical applications for agriculture, he also does what he can to improve the lives of the peasants by building good, clean rooms for his workers and treating their illnesses with the homeopathic medicine about which he is knowledgeable. He encourages education by various means, and he protects and educates many youths, whom he sends to study in different areas of Mexico.


           Madero founds, with his own money, the San Pedro School of Commerce. He enjoys philosophy and spiritualism. In 1906, he is a delegate of the San Pedro de las Colonias Center of Psychological Studies to the First National Congress of Spiritualism. He is an enthusiastic reviewer of The Book of the Spirits by Alan Kardec.


           Starting in 1904, Madero begins to participate in politics in Coahuila. He becomes the president of a democratic club that seeks the state governorship. He writes political articles for El Demócrata, the club’s official publication, in which he sets forth his ideas about human rights, the vote and freedom. In addition, he begins to spread his ideas among the hacienda owners.


           Francisco I. Madero begins making well-received speeches and in 1908 he publishes his book La sucesión presidencial en 1910 (The Presidential Succession in 1910), in which he sets forth the main issues faced by the country. He continues his campaign, now as the presidential candidate of the Anti-reelectionist Party. He campaigns intensely throughout all of Mexico and attracts many followers. When it is announced that President Porfirio Díaz has been reelected, Madero calls for revolt on October 6, 1910, with the Plan of San Luis.


           Madero is incarcerated, first in Monterrey and then in San Luis Potosí. He escapes, and issues the Plan de San Luis Potosí in which he urges the Mexican people to rise up against the government on November 20. He flees to the United States and soon the rebellion he launched starts to grow; at first, little by little, beginning with the revolt ignited in Puebla by Aquiles Serdán, and then rapidly, through the efforts of Pascual Orozco and Francisco Villa. Madero returns to Mexico and joins several battles. He participates in taking Ciudad Juárez, after which Porfirio Díaz’ government starts the negotiations that lead to Díaz’ resignation. Madero waits until the interim presidency of Francisco León de la Barra ends to run for president again with José María Pino Suárez as vice president.
 
 
           Madero wins an overwhelming electoral victory and becomes the president of Mexico on November 6, 1911. Although he had tried to resolve the land issue championed by Emiliano Zapata before becoming president, Madero soon finds himself fighting against Zapata, who issues the Plan de Ayala. As some of the key participants in the struggle against the dictatorship are not compensated, dissatisfaction spreads. Pascual Orozco rebels in 1912. The dissolution of the Anti-reelectionist Party also earns Madero adversaries. Because of Madero’s conciliatory nature, his own office staff includes individuals who are not followers of the Revolution, which has adverse effects.


           Orozco’s rebellion fails and Félix Díaz appears on the scene, but he fails as well. On the other hand, Madero’s dignified foreign policy earns him the enmity of United States Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, who becomes Madero’s worst adversary and protector of those who rise against him. Madero’s administration has not a moment of respite and, on February 9, 1913, the military uprising of the Ciudadela erupts, in which various groups defeat Madero’s regime. Madero entrusts command of the government troops to Victoriano Huerta, who betrays him. Madero is imprisoned and forced to resign the presidency. He is executed on the night of February 22, 1913.
 


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