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Home BIOGRAPHIES Revolution REVOLUTION / VENUSTIANO CARRANZA

REVOLUTION / VENUSTIANO CARRANZA

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VENUSTIANO CARRANZA (1859-1920)

 

B
orn in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, to Colonel Jesús Carranza and María de Jesús Garza and educated at the Fuente Athenaeum in Saltillo and the Mexico City Preparatory School, Venustiano Carranza becomes the president of Mexico in 1917.

 

VENUSTIANO CARRANZA (1859-1920)

 

               He starts his political career as mayor of Cuatro Ciénegas in 1887, and serves again from 1894 to 1898. He is local deputy, substitute federal deputy, senator for his state, and interim governor of Coahuila in 1908.

 

               Carranza is one of the first to join the anti-reelectionists. Madero makes him the Minister of War and the Navy of his provisional cabinet in Ciudad Juárez. He takes charge of the government of Coahuila and, after Madero’s assassination, he issues the Plan of Guadalupe on March 26, 1913, in which Victoriano Huerta and the legislative and judicial powers are repudiated. Proclaimed the first chief of the constitutionalist army (because of the 1857 Constitution), Carranza begins his march to Sonora.

 

               After Huerta falls, Venustiano Carranza enters Mexico City on August 20, 1914. The disagreements between the first chief and General Francisco Villa become evident, and Villa rebels when Carranza asks him to attend the October 1, 1914 convention, convoked to settle some of the most serious problems of the revolutionary movement.

 

               At the convention, which is held in Aguascalientes, Francisco Villa is removed from his leadership of the Division of the North, and Carranza is removed from his position as first chief. However, Carranza ignores the results of the Aguascalientes Convention and abandons the capital, establishing his government in Veracruz.

 

               Villa’s defeat by Álvaro Obregón in the Battle of Celaya is one of the factors that make possible the return of the First Chief to Mexico City. In 1916, Carranza calls a Constitutional Congress, which meets in Querétaro from December 1, 1916, to January 31, 1917. On February 5, the 1917 Constitution is adopted. The next day, Venustiano Carranza calls for the election of deputies, senators and the president of Mexico. He wins the elections and on May 1, 1917, Venustiano Carranza becomes the Constitutional president of Mexico.

 

               As the 1920 presidential election draws near, Carranza seems inclined towards the candidacy of Ignacio Bonillas, Mexico’s ambassador in the United States, and against the opposition candidates Álvaro Obregón and Pablo González. This causes Plutarco Elías Calles, Álvaro Obregón and Adolfo De la Huerta, all from Sonora, to lead a revolt. They receive the support of most of the army, forcing Carranza to abandon Mexico City and to head for Veracruz by train. Deep in the mountain range of Puebla, in a place called Tlaxcalantongo, he is assassinated by the forces of General Rodolfo Herrero on May 21, 1920.

 

               Throughout his lifetime, Venustiano Carranza always demonstrates his interest in two main issues: oil and land… The January 6, 1915 law is without a doubt the most important legislation on agrarian matters. This law establishes the principles of what is known as the Mexican agrarian reform.

 

 


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